Music genre classifier using

A side-project done while attending Practical Deep Learning for Coders Course

Kurian Benoy


May 1, 2022


UPDATE - This project got featured in some of the cool project Jeremy Howard shared in lesson3 of fastaiv5 course.

During first lesson of Practical Deep Learning for Coders course, Jeremy had mentioned how using simple computer vision model we can build even a model to classify audio with image classification model itself.

Recently Kaggle grandmaster Rob Mulla conducted a challenge to classify music according to what genre it was. At stakes there was a RTX 3080 Ti GPU. Let’s look how we can classify music genres using a simple computer vision model which was taught in the first lesson of

Downloading packages and importing libraries


I had already installed fastai, pytorch for training this model before hand.

! pip install -Uqq kaggle git+["fastai"]
from import *
from fastai.imports import *
from import *

from huggingface_hub import push_to_hub_fastai

Collecting Data

In this piece of code, I will show you how you can download datasets from Kaggle in general and the datasets I had used for training model. Inorder to train models in audio, first convert the audio to a spectogram and throw an image model. Check this tweet from Dien Hoa Truong who won a NVIDIA RTX 3080 Ti GPU in this competition.


For this competition you need two datasets:

  1. The competition data
  2. Image data generated from converting audio to melspectograms in form of images

The data provided here are over 20,000 royalty free song samples (30 second clips) and their musical genres. Your task is to create a machine learning algorithm capable of predicting the genres of unlabeled music files. Create features, design architectures, do whatever it takes to predict them the best.

The code for downloading data from kaggle has been adopted from Jeremy’s notebook

creds = ""

from pathlib import Path

cred_path = Path("~/.kaggle/kaggle.json").expanduser()
if not cred_path.exists():
path = Path("../input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02")
(#6) [Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/genres.csv'),Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/sample_submission.csv'),Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/test.csv'),Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/test'),Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/train.csv'),Path('input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/train')]
from zipfile import ZipFile
from kaggle import api

if not path.exists():
Downloading to /home
100%|██████████| 9.05G/9.05G [07:54<00:00, 20.5MB/s]
! kaggle datasets download -d dienhoa/music-genre-spectrogram-pogchamps
Downloading to /home
100%|█████████████████████████████████████▉| 6.80G/6.80G [07:00<00:00, 14.7MB/s]
100%|██████████████████████████████████████| 6.80G/6.80G [07:00<00:00, 17.4MB/s]

Quick EDA and Data Cleaning

df_train = pd.read_csv("../input/kaggle-pog-series-s01e02/train.csv")
song_id filename filepath genre_id genre
0 10150 010150.ogg train/010150.ogg 7 Instrumental
1 7358 007358.ogg train/007358.ogg 2 Punk
2 20573 020573.ogg train/020573.ogg 5 Folk
3 11170 011170.ogg train/011170.ogg 12 Old-Time / Historic
4 16662 016662.ogg train/016662.ogg 1 Rock
df_train["filepath"] = df_train["filepath"].str.replace("ogg", "png")

Shows a highly imbalanced dataset

Rock                   3097
Electronic             3073
Punk                   2584
Experimental           1801
Hip-Hop                1761
Folk                   1215
Chiptune / Glitch      1181
Instrumental           1045
Pop                     945
International           814
Ambient Electronic      796
Classical               495
Old-Time / Historic     408
Jazz                    306
Country                 142
Soul-RnB                 94
Spoken                   94
Blues                    58
Easy Listening           13
Name: genre, dtype: int64
song_id filename filepath genre_id genre
0 10150 010150.ogg train/010150.png 7 Instrumental
1 7358 007358.ogg train/007358.png 2 Punk
2 20573 020573.ogg train/020573.png 5 Folk
3 11170 011170.ogg train/011170.png 12 Old-Time / Historic
4 16662 016662.ogg train/016662.png 1 Rock
df_train = df_train.set_index("song_id")
# I noticed some of images are missing music-genre-spectrogram-pogchamps images which are in training data. So removed it
df_train = df_train.drop(
(19909, 4)

Loading Data using fastai DataLoaders

For creating this notebook, I spend a major portion of my time in cleaning and sorting out appropriate datablocks/dataloaders for training image models using This is something which you as a practitioner experience, compared to learning all the theory and backpropogation algorithm.

So let’s see how we load this data using There are two approaches which we will discuss below. Both the approaches of loading data works, but the first approach as a disadvantage, which I will tell in a moment.

Approach 1. Using DataBlock and loading images

  • Create a data frame temp_train and create new column is_valid
  • is_valid is default column named created for using ColSplitter
  • Now set get_x which specifies the path of files for inputting data which is set as base_path+filename path: lambda o:f’{path}/’+o.path
  • Now set get_y which specifies the variable to predict, ie the genre of music
temp_train = df_train
temp_train.loc[:15000, "is_valid"] = True
temp_train.loc[15000:, "is_valid"] = False
path = Path("../input/music-genre-spectrogram-pogchamps/spectograms/")
dblock = DataBlock(
    blocks=(ImageBlock, CategoryBlock),
    get_x=lambda o: f"{path}/" + o.path,
    get_y=lambda o: o.genre,
dls = dblock.dataloaders(temp_train)

# Can be used for debugging
# dblock.summary(df_train)

This worked really well, and with this approach I was even able to train a ML model which got 50% accuracy.


Yet when it came to export models, due to usage of lamda method in DataBlock. I got Pickling error as the model was not able to be exported with learn.export() method.

2. Using DataLoaders methods with loading from dataframe method

This issue got me into using approach that using ImageDataLoaders.from_df in fastai. Let’s first take a look at our df_train dataframe:

filename filepath genre_id genre
10150 010150.ogg train/010150.png 7 Instrumental
7358 007358.ogg train/007358.png 2 Punk
20573 020573.ogg train/020573.png 5 Folk
11170 011170.ogg train/011170.png 12 Old-Time / Historic
16662 016662.ogg train/016662.png 1 Rock

If you look at the dataframe, we know that on appending to the path, the filepath column. - This is the exact value for get_x method in fastai fn_col = 1 which specifies the column name filepath at position 1. - label or get_y is specified by the column name genre at position 3. - valid_pct (ensure what percentage of data to be used for validation) - y_block=CategoryBlock to ensure it’s used for normal classification only and not multi-label

dls = ImageDataLoaders.from_df(

Training fastai model

I trained using a resnet18 model at first, later we stepped up to use resnet50 model.

learn = vision_learner(dls, resnet50, metrics=error_rate)

learn.fine_tune(10, 0.0008317637839354575)
epoch train_loss valid_loss error_rate time
0 2.869285 2.171426 0.616428 01:43
epoch train_loss valid_loss error_rate time
0 2.312176 1.843815 0.558654 02:07
1 2.102361 1.719162 0.539061 02:08
2 1.867139 1.623988 0.527003 02:08
3 1.710557 1.527913 0.507661 02:07
4 1.629478 1.456836 0.479779 02:05
5 1.519305 1.433036 0.474253 02:05
6 1.457465 1.379757 0.464456 02:05
7 1.396283 1.369344 0.457925 02:05
8 1.359388 1.367973 0.453655 02:05
9 1.364363 1.368887 0.456167 02:04

Pushing models to hugging face

huggingface_hub has released two new functions to easily push fastai models to Huggingface Hub.

  • Using push_to_hub_fastai you can easily push the fastai Learner to huggingface.
  • Additionally, you can load any fastai Learner from the Hub using from_pretrained_fastai

Omar Espejel had shared a fantastic notebook on these new functionalities in huggingface here.


You should install git-lfs and login to huggingface account with token before pushing

from huggingface_hub import push_to_hub_fastai

    commit_message="Resnet50 with 10 epochs of training",
/home/kurianbenoy/music_genre_classification_baseline is already a clone of Make sure you pull the latest changes with `repo.git_pull()`.
   390320d..3605083  main -> main

If you want to load this model in fastai and use it directly for inference just from_pretrain_fastai as shown in the below screenshot:

from huggingface_hub import from_pretrained_fastai

learn = from_pretrained_fastai("kurianbenoy/music_genre_classification_baseline")

Taking a look at results


interp = Interpretation.from_learner(learn)
interp.plot_top_losses(9, figsize=(15, 10))

Inference function

from import *
from huggingface_hub import from_pretrained_fastai

learn = from_pretrained_fastai("kurianbenoy/music_genre_classification_baseline")

def predict(img):
    img = PILImage.create(img)
    _pred, _pred_w_idx, probs = learn.predict(img)
    labels_probs = {labels[i]: float(probs[i]) for i, _ in enumerate(labels)}
    return labels_probs


We trained a ML model which can identify with 54.4% accuracy to classify in a music file which genre it is. It’s not so bad for a baseline model. Dien Hoa Truong has shared some techniques which he learned during Kaggle competition with music genres.

Thanks for reading :pray: